Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.10.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The historical results of operations and financial position of the North American wood flooring business are reported as discontinued operations in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The historical information in the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements have been restated to reflect the effects of the sale of the North American wood flooring business. For further information on discontinued operations, see Note 9.
Prior to April 1, 2016, AFI operated as a part of AWI. The financial information for periods prior to April 1, 2016 was prepared on a combined basis from AWI’s historical accounting records and is presented herein on a stand-alone basis as if the operations had been conducted independently of AWI. Beginning April 1, 2016, the financial information was prepared on a consolidated basis. The Consolidated Financial Statements of AFI presented are not indicative of our future performance, and, for periods prior to April 1, 2016, do not necessarily reflect what our historical financial condition, results of operations and cash flows would have been if we had operated as a separate, stand-alone entity during those periods.
For periods prior to April 1, 2016, AFI was comprised of certain stand-alone legal entities for which discrete financial information was available, as well as portions of legal entities for which discrete financial information was not available (the "Shared Entities"). For the Shared Entities for which discrete financial information was not available, such as shared utilities, taxes, and other shared costs, allocation methodologies were applied to allocate amounts to AFI. The Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for these periods include all revenues and costs attributable to AFI, including costs for facilities, functions and services used by AFI. The results of operations for those periods also include allocations of costs for administrative functions and services performed on behalf of AFI by centralized staff groups within AWI, AWI’s general corporate expenses and certain pension and other retirement benefit costs for those periods. All of the allocations and estimates in the Consolidated Financial Statements are based on assumptions that AFI management believes are reasonable.
All charges and allocations of cost for facilities, functions and services performed by AWI prior to the Spin-off were deemed paid by AFI to AWI in cash, in the period in which the cost was recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Prior to the Spin-off, transactions between AWI and AFI were accounted for through net AWI investment.
Prior to the Spin-off, AFI’s portion of current income taxes payable was deemed to have been remitted to AWI in the period the related tax expense was recorded. AFI’s portion of current income taxes receivable was deemed to have been remitted to AFI by AWI in the period to which the receivable applies only to the extent that a refund of such taxes could have been recognized by AFI on a stand-alone basis under the law of the relevant taxing jurisdiction.
Consolidation Policy
Consolidation Policy

The Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying data in this report include the accounts of AFI and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated from the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates

We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), which requires management to make estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. When preparing an estimate, management determines the amount based upon the consideration of relevant internal and external information. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Reclassifications
Reclassifications

Certain amounts in the prior year’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes and schedule thereto have been recast to conform to the 2018 presentation.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition 

We recognize revenue when control of the promised goods is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects
the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods.

Our primary performance obligation to our customers is the delivery of flooring products pursuant to purchase orders. Control of the products we sell transfers to our customers at the point in time when the goods are shipped. Our standard sales terms are primarily Free On Board (“FOB”) shipping point. Our typical payment terms are 30 days and our sales arrangements do not contain any significant financing component for our customers. Our customer arrangements do not generate contract assets or liabilities that are material to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Each purchase order sets forth the transaction price for the products purchased under that arrangement. Some customer arrangements include variable consideration, such as volume rebates, some of which depend upon our customers meeting specified performance criteria, such as a purchasing level over a period of time. We use judgment to estimate the most likely amount of variable consideration at each reporting date.

We generally do not incur any incremental costs to obtain or fulfill our customer contracts that require capitalization and expense such costs as incurred when the amortization period is less than one year.

We disaggregate revenue based on customer geography as this category represents the most appropriate depiction of how the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows are impacted by economic factors. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for our revenues disaggregated by geography.

Warranties
Warranties

We provide our customers with a product warranty that provides assurance that the products we sell meet standard specifications and are free of defects. We maintain a reserve for claims incurred under our standard product warranty programs. We allocate a portion of the transaction price for each sale to our performance obligation to provide service type warranties to our customers.
Sales Incentives
Sales Incentives

Sales incentives to customers are reflected as a reduction of net sales.

Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and Handling Costs

We treat shipping and handling that occurs after our customer obtains control of the products as a fulfillment activity and not as a promised service. Shipping and handling costs are reflected as a component of cost of goods sold.
Advertising Costs
Advertising Costs

We recognize advertising expenses as they are incurred.
Pension and Postretirement Benefits
Pension and Postretirement Benefits

We have benefit plans that provide for pension, medical and life insurance benefits to certain eligible employees when they retire from active service. The cost of plan amendments that provide for benefits already earned by plan participants is amortized over the expected future working lifetime or the life expectancy of plan participants. A market-related value of plan assets methodology is utilized in the calculation of expected return on assets. The methodology recognizes gains and losses on long duration bonds immediately, while gains and losses on other assets are recognized in the calculation over a five-year period. We use a December 31 measurement date for our pension and postretirement benefit plans.

Taxes
Taxes

For the periods prior to April 1, 2016, operations of certain businesses included in our Consolidated Financial Statements are divisions of legal entities included in AWI’s consolidated U.S. federal and state income tax returns, or tax returns of non-U.S. subsidiaries of AWI. The provision for income taxes and related balance sheet accounts of such entities have been prepared and presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements based on a separate return basis. Differences between our separate return income tax provision and cash flows attributable to income taxes for businesses that were divisions of legal entities have been recognized as capital contributions from, or dividends to, AWI within net AWI investment.

The provision for income taxes has been determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes to reflect the expected future tax consequences of events recognized in the financial statements. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized by applying enacted tax rates to temporary differences that exist as of the balance sheet date which result from differences in the timing of reported taxable income between tax and financial reporting.

We reduce the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if, based on the available evidence, it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. The need to establish valuation allowances for deferred tax assets is assessed quarterly. In assessing the requirement for, and amount of, a valuation allowance in accordance with the more likely than not standard for all periods, we give appropriate consideration to all positive and negative evidence related to the realization of the deferred tax assets. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability and foreign source income, the duration of statutory carryforward periods, and our experience with operating loss and tax credit carryforward expirations. A history of cumulative losses is a significant piece of negative evidence used in our assessment. If a history of cumulative losses is incurred for a tax jurisdiction, forecasts of future profitability are not used as positive evidence related to the realization of the deferred tax assets in the assessment.

We recognize the tax benefits of an uncertain tax position only if those benefits are more likely than not to be sustained based on existing tax law. Additionally, we establish a reserve for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained based on existing tax law, but uncertain in the ultimate benefit to be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authorities. Unrecognized tax benefits are subsequently recognized at the time the more likely than not recognition threshold is met, the tax matter is effectively settled or the statute of limitations for the relevant taxing authority to examine and challenge the tax position has expired, whichever is earlier.

We account for all interest and penalties on uncertain income tax positions as income tax expense.

Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are reported on a net basis.

Earnings per Share
Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the earnings attributable to common shares by the sum of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and the weighted average number of stock-based awards that have vested but not yet been issued during the period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution of securities that could share in the earnings.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and short-term investments that have maturities of three months or less when purchased.
Receivables
Receivables

We sell the vast majority of our products to select, pre-approved customers using customary trade terms that allow for payment in the future. Customer trade receivables and miscellaneous receivables, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, customer credits and warranties are reported in accounts and notes receivable on a net basis. Cash flows from the collection of receivables are classified as operating cash flows on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

We establish credit-worthiness prior to extending credit. We estimate the recoverability of receivables each period. This estimate is based upon new information in the period, which can include the review of available financial statements and forecasts, as well as discussions with legal counsel and the management of the debtor company. We provide allowances as events occur which impact the collectibility of the receivable. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when the potential for recovery is considered remote. We do not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to our customers.
Inventories
Inventories

U.S. inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market, and cost is determined using the last-in, first-out ("LIFO") method of accounting. Non-U.S. inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, and cost is determined using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method of accounting.

Property Plant and Equipment
Property Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost reduced by accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over assets’ estimated useful lives. Machinery and equipment includes manufacturing equipment (depreciated over 3 to 15 years), computer equipment (depreciated over 3 to 5 years) and office furniture and equipment (depreciated over 5 to 7 years). Within manufacturing equipment, assets that are subject to accelerated obsolescence or wear, such as tooling and engraving equipment, are depreciated over shorter periods (3 to 7 years). Heavy production equipment, such as conveyors, kilns and mixers, are depreciated over longer periods (10 to 15 years). Buildings are depreciated over 15 to 30 years, depending on factors such as type of construction and use. Computer software is amortized over 3 to 7 years.

Property, plant and equipment is tested for impairment when indicators of impairment exist, such as operating losses and/or negative cash flows. If an evaluation of the undiscounted future cash flows generated by an asset group indicates impairment, the asset group is written down to its estimated fair value, which is based on its discounted future cash flows. The principal assumption used in these impairment tests is future cash flows, which are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes.

Intangible Assets
Intangible Assets

Our indefinite-lived intangible assets are primarily trademarks which are integral to our corporate identity and expected to contribute indefinitely to our corporate cash flows. We conduct our annual impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter and we conduct interim impairment tests if indicators of potential impairment exist.

An impairment is recognized if the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. We first perform a qualitative assessment to determine if it is necessary to perform a quantitative impairment test. If a quantitative impairment test is deemed necessary, the method used to determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets is the relief-from-royalty method. The principal assumptions used in our application of this method are revenue growth rate, discount rate and royalty rate. Revenue growth rates are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes. The discount rate assumption is calculated based upon an estimated weighted average cost of capital, which we believe reflects the overall level of inherent risk and the rate of return a market participant would expect to achieve. The royalty rate assumption represents the estimated contribution of the intangible asset to overall profits. The method used for valuing our indefinite-lived intangible assets did not change from prior periods.

Our long-lived intangible assets are primarily contractual arrangements (amortized over 5 years), which includes non-compete agreements, and intellectual property (amortized over 2 to 15 years), which includes developed technology and patents. We review long-lived intangible assets for impairment if indicators of potential impairment exist, such as operating losses and/or negative cash flows. If an evaluation of the undiscounted future cash flows generated by the asset indicates impairment, the asset group is written down to its estimated fair value, which is based on its discounted future cash flows. The principal assumption used in these impairment tests is future cash flows, which are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes.
Foreign Currency Transactions
Foreign Currency Transactions

For our subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currency, assets and liabilities are translated at period-end exchange rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at exchange rates effective during each month. Foreign currency translation gains or losses are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") within equity. Gains or losses on foreign currency transactions are recognized through net income (loss).
Stock-Based Employee Compensation
Stock-Based Employee Compensation

We issue stock-based compensation to certain employees and non-employee directors in different forms, including performance stock awards ("PSAs"), performance stock units ("PSUs"), and restricted stock units ("RSUs"). We record stock-based compensation expense based on an estimated grant-date fair value. The expense is reflected as a component of selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses on our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Stock-based compensation expense includes an estimate for forfeitures and anticipated achievement levels and is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period for the entire award.

Net AWI Investment
Net AWI Investment

The Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity include net cash transfers and other property transfers between AWI and AFI. The net AWI investment balance included assets and liabilities incurred by AWI on behalf of AFI such as accrued liabilities related to corporate allocations including administrative expenses for legal, accounting, treasury, information technology, human resources and other services. Other assets and liabilities recorded by AWI, whose related income and expense had been allocated to AFI, were also included in net AWI investment.

All intercompany transactions effected through net AWI investment were considered cash receipts and payments and are reflected in financing activities in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards and Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

On January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606, "Revenue from Contracts with
Customers," and all the related amendments. The impact of the standard is limited to our accounting for warranties and returns. We adopted the standard using the modified retrospective transition method and we recorded a cumulative catch up adjustment to increase accumulated deficit in the amount of $4.1 million, increase prepaid expenses and other current assets by $0.4 million and decrease accounts receivable, net by $4.5 million. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows, but did result in new disclosures.

On January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-01, "Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." The guidance addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Most notably, this new guidance requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. Adoption did not have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-16, "Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory." The guidance requires entities to recognize income tax consequences of many intercompany asset transfers other than inventory at the transaction date. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2017-07, “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost.” The guidance requires the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost to be presented in the income statement line items with compensation cost and all other components of net periodic benefit cost to be presented outside operating income. Previously, all components of net periodic benefit cost were recorded within cost of goods sold and selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expense. We applied this standard retrospectively in the period of adoption. The table below presents the impact of adoption on our results of operations:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
Prior to Adoption
 
Impact of Adoption
 
Upon Adoption
Cost of goods sold
$
555.1

 
$
(2.1
)
 
$
553.0

Selling, general and administrative expenses
164.6

 
(0.8
)
 
163.8

Operating (loss)
(15.6
)
 
2.9

 
(12.7
)
Other expense, net
0.8

 
2.9

 
3.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
Prior to Adoption
 
Impact of Adoption
 
Upon Adoption
Cost of goods sold
$
556.1

 
$
(1.6
)
 
$
554.5

Selling, general and administrative expenses
168.7

 
(0.6
)
 
168.1

Operating (loss)
(14.7
)
 
2.2

 
(12.5
)
Other expense, net
4.7

 
2.2

 
6.9



ASU 2017-07 does not impact our financial condition or cash flows.

On January 1, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2017-12, “Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities.”The guidance eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and it requires the presentation of all items that affect earnings in the same income statement line as the hedged item. This standard did not have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

On January 1, 2018, we early adopted ASU 2018-02, “Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.” The guidance permits entities to reclassify tax effects stranded in AOCI as a result of tax reform to retained earnings. We applied this standard in the period of adoption and we reclassified $12.6 million from accumulated other comprehensive (loss) into accumulated deficit. There will be no impact on results of operations or cash flows.

In March 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2018-05, "Income Taxes". This guidance addresses the recognition of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in an entity's financial statements or tax returns. This guidance was effective immediately upon issuance. The adoption did not have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases." The guidance, and subsequent amendments issued, requires a lessee to recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from a lease agreement. Specifically, this new guidance will require lessees to recognize a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, with limited exceptions. This new guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and must be adopted under a modified retrospective basis. The FASB allows companies transition and practical expedient elections to simplify the transition of the new standard. We have elected the following:
We have elected to not restate comparative prior periods but instead recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption.
We have elected to use the hindsight practical expedient with respect to determining the lease term allowing us to consider the actual outcome of lease renewals, termination options, and purchase options and in assessing impairment of right-of-use assets for existing leases.
We have elected to combine lease and non-lease components as a single component and account for it as a lease for all asset classes excluding real estate.
We have elected to use a portfolio approach to determine the discount rate.

Upon adoption, we will record the right-of-use assets and the lease liabilities related to our operating leases with a lease term in excess of one year. Based on our assessment to date, we expect adoption of the standard will result in recognizing an increase in our lease related assets and liabilities of less than $10 million on our Consolidated Balance Sheet. We do not believe there will be a material impact on results of operations or cash flows.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments." The guidance requires immediate recognition of estimated credit losses that are expected to occur over the remaining life of many financial assets. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, but early adoption is permitted for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard would have on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, "Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement." The guidance eliminates, adds and modifies certain disclosure requirements. This new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 for public companies. Early adoption is permitted for either the entire standard or provisions that eliminate or modify requirements. Adoption of the standard will not impact our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, "Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans." The guidance changes the disclosure requirements by eliminating certain disclosures that are no longer considered cost beneficial and added new ones that are considered pertinent. The guidance is effective for fiscal years ending December 15, 2020 for public companies. Early adoption is permitted. Adoption of the standard will not impact our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, "Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract." The guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for an internal use software license. Capitalized implementation costs should be amortized over the term of the service agreement on a straight-line basis and should be assessed for impairment in a manner similar to long-lived assets. This new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 for public companies. Early adoption is permitted. We are continuing to evaluate the impact the adoption of this standard will have on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Subsequent Events
Subsequent Events

We have evaluated subsequent events for potential recognition and disclosure through the date the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Form 10-K were issued.