Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying data in this report include the accounts of AFI and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated from the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Use of Estimates
We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), which requires management to make estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. When preparing an estimate, management determines the amount based upon the consideration of relevant internal and external information. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Certain amounts in the prior year’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes and schedule thereto have been recast to conform to the 2017 presentation.
We recognize revenue from the sale of products when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, title and risk of loss transfers to the customers, prices are fixed and determinable, and it is reasonably assured the related accounts receivable is collectible. Our standard sales terms are primarily Free On Board (“FOB”) shipping point. Our products are sold with normal and customary return provisions. Sales discounts are deducted immediately from the sales invoice. Provisions, which are recorded as a reduction of revenue, are made for the estimated cost of rebates, promotional programs and warranties. We defer recognizing revenue if special sales agreements, established at the time of sale, warrant this treatment.
Sales incentives to customers are reflected as a reduction of net sales.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs are reflected as a component of cost of goods sold.
We recognize advertising expenses as they are incurred.
Pension and Postretirement Benefits
We have benefit plans that provide for pension, medical and life insurance benefits to certain eligible employees when they retire from active service. The cost of plan amendments that provide for benefits already earned by plan participants is amortized over the expected future working lifetime or the life expectancy of plan participants. A market-related value of plan assets methodology is utilized in the calculation of expected return on assets. The methodology recognizes gains and losses on long duration bonds immediately, while gains and losses on other assets are recognized in the calculation over a five-year period. We use a December 31 measurement date for our pension and postretirement benefit plans.
For the periods prior to April 1, 2016, operations of certain businesses included in our Consolidated Financial Statements are divisions of legal entities included in AWI’s consolidated U.S. federal and state income tax returns, or tax returns of non-U.S. subsidiaries of AWI. The provision for income taxes and related balance sheet accounts of such entities have been prepared and presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements based on a separate return basis. Differences between our separate return income tax provision and cash flows attributable to income taxes for businesses that were divisions of legal entities have been recognized as capital contributions from, or dividends to, AWI within net AWI investment.
The provision for income taxes has been determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes to reflect the expected future tax consequences of events recognized in the financial statements. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized by applying enacted tax rates to temporary differences that exist as of the balance sheet date which result from differences in the timing of reported taxable income between tax and financial reporting.
We reduce the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if, based on the available evidence, it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. The need to establish valuation allowances for deferred tax assets is assessed quarterly. In assessing the requirement for, and amount of, a valuation allowance in accordance with the more likely than not standard for all periods, we give appropriate consideration to all positive and negative evidence related to the realization of the deferred tax assets. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability and foreign source income, the duration of statutory carryforward periods, and our experience with operating loss and tax credit carryforward expirations. A history of cumulative losses is a significant piece of negative evidence used in our assessment. If a history of cumulative losses is incurred for a tax jurisdiction, forecasts of future profitability are not used as positive evidence related to the realization of the deferred tax assets in the assessment.
We recognize the tax benefits of an uncertain tax position only if those benefits are more likely than not to be sustained based on existing tax law. Additionally, we establish a reserve for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained based on existing tax law, but uncertain in the ultimate benefit to be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authorities. Unrecognized tax benefits are subsequently recognized at the time the more likely than not recognition threshold is met, the tax matter is effectively settled or the statute of limitations for the relevant taxing authority to examine and challenge the tax position has expired, whichever is earlier.
We account for all interest and penalties on uncertain income tax positions as income tax expense.
Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are reported on a net basis.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the earnings attributable to common shares by the sum of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and the weighted average number of stock-based awards that have vested but not yet been issued during the period . Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution of securities that could share in the earnings.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and short-term investments that have maturities of three months or less when purchased.
We sell the vast majority of our products to select, pre-approved customers using customary trade terms that allow for payment in the future. Customer trade receivables and miscellaneous receivables, net of allowances for doubtful accounts, customer credits and warranties are reported in accounts and notes receivable on a net basis. Cash flows from the collection of receivables are classified as operating cash flows on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
We establish credit-worthiness prior to extending credit. We estimate the recoverability of receivables each period. This estimate is based upon new information in the period, which can include the review of available financial statements and forecasts, as well as discussions with legal counsel and the management of the debtor company. We provide allowances as events occur which impact the collectability of the receivable. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when the potential for recovery is considered remote. We do not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to our customers.
U.S. Resilient Flooring segment inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market, and cost is determined using the last-in, first-out ("LIFO") method of accounting. U.S. Wood Flooring segment inventories and all non-U.S. inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value, and cost is determined using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method of accounting.
Property Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost reduced by accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over assets’ estimated useful lives. Machinery and equipment includes manufacturing equipment (depreciated over 3 to 15 years), computer equipment (depreciated over 3 to 5 years) and office furniture and equipment (depreciated over 5 to 7 years). Within manufacturing equipment, assets that are subject to accelerated obsolescence or wear, such as tooling and engraving equipment, are depreciated over shorter periods (3 to 7 years). Heavy production equipment, such as conveyors, kilns and mixers, are depreciated over longer periods (10 to 15 years). Buildings are depreciated over 15 to 30 years, depending on factors such as type of construction and use. Computer software is amortized over 3 to 7 years.
Property, plant and equipment is tested for impairment when indicators of impairment exist, such as operating losses and/or negative cash flows. If an evaluation of the undiscounted future cash flows generated by the asset indicates impairment, the asset is written down to its estimated fair value, which is based on its discounted future cash flows. The principal assumption used in these impairment tests is future cash flows, which are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes.
Our indefinite-lived intangible assets are primarily trademarks and brand names, with our Bruce trademark representing the largest asset, all of which are integral to our corporate identity and expected to contribute indefinitely to our corporate cash flows. We conduct our annual impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter and we conduct interim impairment tests if indicators of potential impairment exist.
The method used to determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets is the relief-from-royalty method. The principal assumptions used in our application of this method are revenue growth rate, discount rate and royalty rate. Revenue growth rates are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes. The discount rate assumption is calculated based upon an estimated weighted average cost of capital, which we believe reflects the overall level of inherent risk and the rate of return a market participant would expect to achieve. The royalty rate assumption represents the estimated contribution of the intangible asset to overall profits. The method used for valuing our indefinite-lived intangible assets did not change from prior periods.
Our long-lived intangible assets are primarily contractual arrangements (amortized over 5 to 50 years), which includes non-compete agreements and land use rights, and intellectual property (amortized over 2 to 15 years), which includes developed technology and patents. We review long-lived intangible assets for impairment if indicators of potential impairment exist, such as operating losses and/or negative cash flows. If an evaluation of the undiscounted future cash flows generated by the asset indicates impairment, the asset is written down to its estimated fair value, which is based on its discounted future cash flows. The principal assumption used in these impairment tests is future cash flows, which are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes.
Foreign Currency Transactions
For our subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currency, assets and liabilities are translated at period-end exchange rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at exchange rates effective during each month. Foreign currency translation gains or losses are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") within equity. Gains or losses on foreign currency transactions are recognized through net income (loss).
A provision for estimated future product warranty cost is recorded when products are shipped to our customer and revenue is recognized. Our estimate of future costs to satisfy warranty obligations is primarily based on historical trends and, if believed to be significantly different from historical trends, estimates of future costs. Costs to satisfy customer accommodation repairs or replacements made at the sole discretion of AFI are recorded as a component of warranty expense when such customer accommodations are made.
Stock-Based Employee Compensation
We issue stock-based compensation to certain employees and non-employee directors in different forms, including performance stock awards ("PSAs"), performance stock units ("PSUs"), and restricted stock units ("RSUs"). We record stock-based compensation expense based on an estimated grant-date fair value. The expense is reflected as a component of selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). Stock-based compensation expense includes an estimate for forfeitures and anticipated achievement levels and is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period for the entire award.
Net AWI Investment
The Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity include net cash transfers and other property transfers between AWI and AFI. The net AWI investment balance included assets and liabilities incurred by AWI on behalf of AFI such as accrued liabilities related to corporate allocations including administrative expenses for legal, accounting, treasury, information technology, human resources and other services. Other assets and liabilities recorded by AWI, whose related income and expense had been allocated to AFI, were also included in net AWI investment.
All intercompany transactions effected through net AWI investment were considered cash receipts and payments and are reflected in financing activities in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
The impact of the Spin-off on equity is reflected in net transfers from AWI and distribution paid to AWI on the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity and the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. The components on the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity and the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows were as follows:
Additionally, during 2017, we recorded adjustments primarily related to the tax attributes assumed upon the Spin-off in the amount of $0.7 million.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In January 2017, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2015-11, "Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory." The guidance requires that inventory that is measured on a FIFO or average cost basis to be measured at lower of cost and net realizable value, as opposed to the lower of cost or market. For inventory that is measured under the LIFO basis or the retail recovery method, there is no change to current measurement requirements. We applied this guidance prospectively and there was no material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows as a result of adoption.
In April 2017, we adopted ASU 2017-01, “Clarifying the Definition of a Business,” which amends the guidance in Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 805: Business Combinations. This guidance provides a new framework for determining whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. Adoption did not impact our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Between May 2014 and December 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued several ASUs, which have been codified within ASC Topic 606: Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and are effective for AFI on January 1, 2018. We have substantially completed our assessment of the new standard, and we expect the impact of the standard will be limited to our accounting for warranties and returns. We plan to adopt the standard using the modified retrospective transition method, and we expect the cumulative catch up adjustment to increase accumulated deficit by less than $5.0 million. Other than this impact to our financial condition, we do not expect the adoption of the standard to have a material impact on our ongoing results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, "Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." The guidance addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Most notably, this new guidance requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. This new guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. We do not believe adoption will have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases." The guidance amends accounting for leases, most notably by requiring a lessee to recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from a lease agreement. Specifically, this new guidance will require lessees to recognize a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, with limited exceptions. This new guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and must be adopted under a modified retrospective basis. We currently expect that most of our operating lease commitments will be subject to the new standard and recognized as right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities upon our adoption of ASU 2016-02, which will increase our total assets and total liabilities that we report relative to such amounts prior to adoption.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments." The guidance requires immediate recognition of estimated credit losses that are expected to occur over the remaining life of many financial assets. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, but early adoption is permitted for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard would have on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, "Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory." The guidance requires entities to recognize income tax consequences of many intercompany asset transfers other than inventory, at the transaction date. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted but only at the beginning of an annual period. We do not believe adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost.” The guidance requires the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost to be presented in the income statement line items with compensation cost and all other components of net periodic benefit cost to be presented outside operating income. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and must be adopted retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted but only at the beginning of an annual period. We currently record all components of net periodic benefit cost within cost of goods sold and SG&A. The table below presents the expected impact of adoption on our results of operations:
ASU 2017-07 does not impact our financial condition or cash flows.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, “Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities.” The guidance eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and it requires the presentation of all items that affect earnings in the same income statement line as the hedged item. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted in annual and interim periods. We have elected to adopt this standard early, effective January 1, 2018, and do not expect this standard to have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
In December 2017, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 ("SAB 118"), which provides guidance on accounting for tax effects of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Reform Act"). SAB 118 addresses how a company recognizes provisional amounts when a company does not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed in reasonable detail to complete its accounting for the effect of the changes in the Tax Reform Act. The measurement period ends when a company has obtained, prepared and analyzed the information necessary to finalize its accounting, but cannot extend beyond one year. As of December 31, 2017, we determined the provisional effects of the Tax Reform Act and recorded the remeasurement of the deferred income tax assets and liabilities resulting in $0.8 million of tax expense, which decreased the 2017 effective tax rate by 1.6%. We will continue to evaluate the impact of the Tax Reform Act.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, “Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.” The guidance permits entities to reclassify tax effects stranded in AOCI as a result of tax reform to retained earnings. This new guidance is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted in annual and interim periods and can be applied retrospectively or in the period of adoption. We expect to reclassify $13.4 million into accumulated deficit upon adoption. There will be no impact on results of operations or cash flows.
We have evaluated subsequent events for potential recognition and disclosure through the date the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Form 10-K were issued.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef